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Annual and Perennial Flower Selections for North Dakota

Source:  North Dakota State University, NDSU Extension Service

H322, January 1999

Ron Smith, Extension Horticulturist
Barb Laschkewitsch, Agricultural Research Specialist

Annuals and perennials are an excellent source of color and accent to North Dakota landscapes. Annuals are used for their continuous flower color throughout most of the growing season. Because North Dakota summers are so unpredictable, it is usually a good idea to use transplants after killing frost threats have passed. Perennials are used for their permanence in the landscape setting, offering specific periods of bloom, relatively low maintenance, and wide adaptability.

Where annuals are started anew each growing season, perennials can usually be divided in the spring or fall. These new divisions can either be replanted or given to a friend or neighbor.

The organization of this circular is to provide annual suggestions for specific locations in and around the landscape: Low growing plants, tall, shade, full sun/dry locations, for massing, naturalizing, and fragrance. This does not mean that a plant selected for a particular location absolutely cannot grow in another type of location. It is merely a guide indicating where the selected plants grow best under those conditions. Some plants may be listed in more than one category.


Annuals

Low Growing (6"-8")
Ageratum
Alyssum – `Carpet of Snow'
Dahlberg Daisy
Dianthus – Princes Series
Dusty Miller
Lobelia
Marigolds (Dwarf)
Moss Rose
Nemophilia
Nierembergia
Pansy
Snapdragons (Dwarf)
Vinca – Carpet Series
Zinnia (Dwarf)


Tall Plants (24" - 48"+)

Cannas
Celosia
Cleome
Cosmos – Sensation Mix
Fountain Grass
Marigold – Climax & Jubilee Series
Nicotiana
Snapdragon – Rocket Strains
Statice
Sweet Pea – Vine to 6'+
Zinnia – Specific cultivars


Intermediate Height (10"-20")

Begonia (wax)
Gaillardia `Red Humel'
Gomphrena
Geranium
Impatiens
Marigold – Zenith, Discovery
Petunia
Salvia splendens
Verbena
Vinca
Zinnia angustifolia


Plants For Shade

Begonia – Wax and Tuberous
Coleus
Dahlberg Daisy – Light
Impatiens
Lobelia – Light
Myosotis – (Forget-Me-Not)
Nemisia – Light
Nemophila – Light
Nicotiana – Light
Nigella
Pansy
Poppy – Light, or east side
Rudbeckia – Light
Torenia – Light


Full Sun/Dry Locations

Calendula – Prince Series
California Poppy
Cleome
Dusty Miller (Senecio)
Eustoma (Lisanthus)
Gaillardia
Moss Rose – `Magic Carpet'
Statice (Limonium)
Sanvitalia
Tithonia (Mexican Sunflower)
Verbena


Striking Flower Show – Massed Plantings

Alyssum – `Carpet of Snow'
Dianthus – Princess Series
Dahlberg Daisy
Geranium – Orbit & Ringo Series
Marigold – Jubilee Series
Petunia – Multifloras
Portulaca (Moss Rose)
Salvia – Sizzler Series
Snapdragon – Sweetheart Series
Verbena
Zinnia


Plants For Naturalizing

Campanula (Tall Bellflower)
Cleome
Forget-Me-Not (Myosotis)
Fountain Grass (Pennisetum spp.)
Gaillardia (Indian Blanket)
Hare's Tail (Lagarus ovatus)
Lupinus (Texas Bluebonnet
Nigella (Love-In-A-Mist)
Rudbeckia (Black-Eyed-Susan)


Annuals Planted For Fragrance

Alyssum
Four-O'Clock
Heliotrope
Mignonette
Moonflower (vine)
Nasturtium
Nicotiana
Pincushion Flower
Snapdragon
Stock
Sweet Pea


Annuals For Drying

Amaranthus caudatus
Fountain Grass
Gomphrena
Helichrysum (strawflower)
Quaking Grass
Salvia farinaceae
Statice




Perennials

Perennials are often used to solve trouble some spots in the landscape. Some of these areas might be wet, dry, shady, or possess infertile soil. Perennials are effective background plantings, for naturalizing, or simply as a border to define a planting bed.

Wet areas could be planted with Iris sibirica, Monarda didyma, and Viola odorata. For dry areas, the use of Achillea or Hemerocallis might be considered. Where the soil is poor, Gypsophila or Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis) could be used. For tall background plantings, consider Phlox paniculata or Boltonia asteroides `Snowbank'. Naturalized plantings may use the Prairie Gayfeather (Liatris) or Echinacea, while rocky areas will accomodate plantings of Columbine (Aquilegia) and Basket-of-Gold (Aurinia saxatilis `Citrina'). Borders can be accented effectively with Snow-In-Summer (Cerastium tomentosum) or Phlox subulata (Moss Pink).

Perennial selection can be made on the basis of flower color and the season of bloom. The following selections will highlight these qualities.



Color Guide

Blue to Purple
Ajuga
Aquilegia
Aster
Campanula
Delphinium
Echinacea
Hosta
Iris
Liatris
Phlox
Platycodon
Salvia
Scabiosa
Veronica
Viola


Pink to Red

Achillea millefolium
Aster
Astilbe
Boltonia
Dianthus
Dicentra
Echinacea
Erigeron
Geranium
Hemerocallis
Heuchera
Iris
Lobelia cardinalis
Lychnis calcedonica
Paeonia
Phlox
Physostegia
Salvia `Rose Queen'
Sedum spectabile


Yellow to Orange

Achillea `Coronation Gold'
Alchemilla
Aurinia saxatilis
Coreopsis
Gaillardia
Hemerocallis
Heliopsis
Iris
Ligularia
Linum flavum
Oenothera
Papaver orientale
Ratibida
Rudbeckia
Sedum
Solidago


White

Achillea `Angels Breath'
Arabis albida
Aruncus
Aster
Astilbe
Boltonia
Cerastium
Dendranthemum
Dianthus
Dicentra
Dictamnus
Echinacea
Gypsophila
Hosta
Iris
Paeonia
Phlox
Veronica
Yucca


Gray to Blue, & Variegated Foliage

Achillea
Ajuga
Artemisia
Cerastium
Dianthus
Echinops
Gypsophila
Heuchera
Hosta
Lamium
Sedum
Thymus



Season of Bloom

May to June
Ajuga
Aster
Cerastium
Dicentra
Dictamnus
Erigeron
Geranium
Iris
Paeonia
Lychins chalcedonica
Viola


June to July

Aruncus
Campanula
Delphinium
Heuchera
Salvia `Rose Queen'
Yucca


July-August
Achillea `Angels Breath'
Ligularia
Lobelia cardinalis
Monarda
Physostegia
Ratibida


August-September

Aster
Boltonia
Sedum spectabile


Extended Season of Bloom

Achillea millefolium
Aquilegia
Coreopsis
Echinacea
Dianthus
Gaillardia
Gypsophila
Heliopsis
Hemerocallis
Hosta
Liatris
Linum flavum
Oenothera
Phlox
Rudbeckia
Sedum
Solidago
Veronica



Foliar Impacts

Gray, Blue, & Variegated – Season Long
Achillea
Ajuga
Artemisia
Cerastium
Dianthus
Echinops
Gypsophila
Heuchera
Hosta
Lamium
Perovskia
Sedum
Thymus



Heights:

Under 12"
Ajuga
Asarum
Aurinia
Cerastium
Dianthus deltoides
Coreopsis `Golden Shower'
Iris cristata
Iris pumila
Oenothera missourensis
Phlox subulata
Sedum
Viola


12-24"

Achillea `Baby's Breath'
Achillea `Moonshine'
Achillea `Fire King'
Arum
Asarum
Campanula rotundifolia
Coreposis auriculata `Nana'
Dendranthemum
Dianthus barbatus
Dictamnus albus
Erigeron `Walther'
Geranium
Heuchera sanguinea
Hosta lancifolia
Iris, Bearded
Linum perenne
Lychnis X arkwrightii
Paeonia tenuifolia
Phlox divaricata
Sedum aizoon
Sedum `Autumn Joy'
Sedum spectabile
Veronica `Crater Lake Blue'
Veronica spicata


Over 24"

Achillea filpendulina
Aquilegia canadensis
Aster
Astilbe
Boltonia asteroides `Snowbank'
Campanula glomerata
Coreopsis `Golden Shower'
Delphinium elatum
Dictamnus albus `Purpureus'
Echinacea purpurea
Echinops vitro
Eryngium X zabelii `Amethyst'
Gypsophila paniculata
Hosta sieboldiana
Iris
Liatris spicata
Lychnis chalcedonica
Monarda didyma
Papaver orientale
Phlox paniculata
Physostegia virginiana
Rudbeckia
Salvia
Solidago `Gold Dwarf'
Veronica virginica
Yucca

 




Current All-America Selection (AAS) Winners

The red, white and blue logo of All-America Selections (AAS) on vegetable and flower seed packets, bedding plant tags, in catalogs and in garden articles is a promise of gardening success under most circumstances — even in North Dakota! For the past 67 years, AAS has taken the guess work out of finding flower and vegetable varieties that will be reliable, vigorous, productive and that show marked improvements over other varieties currently available.

While not a trial grounds, the campus gardens on the western part of the NDSU campus are AAS Display gardens that attract hundreds of visitors during the growing season. The upcoming 1999 AAS plants were trialed in our gardens in Fargo and at the Dickinson Research and Extension Center. To get a glimpse of what will be available to the public for the next gardening year, visit our gardens at either site.



Recent AAS winners are:

1997

Celosia cristata `Prestige Scarlet' — a branching plant producing numerous cocks-comb blooms. Heat tolerant, carefree plants reaching heights of 15 to 20 inches. Good as a cut flower.

Gypsophila muralis `Gypsy' — dwarf plant, getting to 10 to 14 inches, but widely spreading. Small inch blooms, perfect for rock garden or container culture.


1998

Impatiens F1 `Victorian Rose' — soft rose, consistently double flowers are improvements. More free flowering than other double flowers. Needs shady growing location.

Petunia F1 `Prisim Sunshine' — A large, creamy yellow, single flowering plant that provides color all season long, and combines well with other colors.


1999

98 selections can be added to the more than 500 that have been made since AAS began in 1932.

Tritoma `Flamenco' — a perennial in zones 5-8, this striking flower is desirable as a long stem cut flower. The tubular blooms on a flower spike can be light yellow, golden yellow, orange, red or shades of these colors. Height, 30 inches.

Verbena `Quartz Burgundy' — a distinct deep red, burgundy wine color not previously available in an annual verbena. The large umbels and velvety texture are desirable flower qualities that were observed by the AAS judges. Another improved trait is the length of the flowering season. It will flower in the early spring or fall and continue for months. This trait is enhanced by powdery mildew tolerance so that the plant does not succumb to this disease.

Verbena `Quartz Burgundy' — is ideal for hanging baskets as well as ground cover plantings in full sun. Spreads up to 15 inches and gets 6-10 inches in height.

Zinnia `Profusion Cherry' — exceeded all expectations for a single flowered, mid-height garden zinnia. Once started, it never ceased flowering all through the growing season. Exhibiting a combination of high disease tolerance, and a profusion of single, rose-colored blooms, the interested gardener need only provide a sunny location, fertile soil, and water for color that will last for months. Height: 12-18 inches; width: 16-22 inches.

Zinnia `Profusion Orange' — perhaps the most disease-resistant zinnia in North American gardens. This plant is appropriately named as the old blooms are covered with fresh foliage and more flowers. Because of its mounded habit, it shows color in all directions, so there is no "good side" for planting. Getting 12-18 inches in height, each plant will spread 14-20 inches.

Portulaca F1 `Sundial Peach' — the first portulaca to win an All-America Selections Award. It possesses two distinct qualities that other cultivars only hope for — a unique pastel coral color, and a longer display of color than other varieties of portulaca. Plants get to a height of 6-8 inches, and spread 812 inches.

Osteospermum `Passion Mix' — a daisy lover's delight. The single daisy flowers can be shades of rose, purple, or a contrasting pure white. Known also as Cape Marigold or African Daisy, this native to South Africa will thrive in a xeric-type garden environment, as it needs little water to get along. They should be readily available in garden centers in 4" to 6" pots this spring. Height and width: 1218 inches.

Marigold `Bonanza Bolero' — unique because of its irregular bicolor design. The blooms are golden yellow, flecked with mahogany red markings in a variable pattern. The flowers can be cut and used in petite summer bouquets. This is a good candidate for our environment as it tolerates poor weather conditions quite well, and are disease and insect free. Height: 8-12 inches; width: 12-24 inches

Begonia F1 `Pin-Up Flame' — an unusual color combination of yellow with an orange/red petal edge. This color pattern is distinct from other single flowered tuberous rooted begonias and the pattern varies slightly from plant to plant. They will be mostly available in 4 inch pots at garden centers this spring. Height and width: 10-12 inches.




Common Name Reference

Annuals
Ageratum — Floss Flower
Amaranthus — Love-lies-bleeding
Antirrhinum — Snapdragon
Begonia — Begonia
Briza — Quaking grass, Rattlesnake grass
Calendula — Calendula
Campanula — Bellflower
Celosia — Cockscomb, plumed and crested
Centaurea — Basket flower
Chrysanthemum — Chrysanthemum
Cleome — Spider flower
Coleus — Coleus, Flame nettle
Consolida — Larkspur
Coreopsis — Calliopsis
Cosmos — Cosmos
Cynoglossum — Chinese forget-me-not
Dianthus — Pink, Sweet William
Dyssodia — Dahlberg daisy
Eschscholzia — California poppy
Eustoma — Lisianthus, Prairie gentian
Gaillardia — Blanket flower
Gerbera — Transvaal daisy
Gomphrena — Globe amaranth
Gypsophila — Baby's breath
Helichrysum — Strawflower
Iberis — Rocket candytuft
Impatiens — Garden balsam
Ipomoea — Moonflower, Morning glory
Lathyrus — Sweet pea
Limonium — Statice, Sea lavender
Lobelia — Lobelia
Lobularia — Sweet alyssum
Moluccella — Bells-of-Ireland
Myosotis — Forget-me-not
Nemesia — Pouch nemesia
Nicotiana — Flowering tobacco
Nigella — Nigella, Fennel flower
Papaver — Poppy, Iceland poppy
Pelargonium — Geranium
Petunia — Petunia
Phlox — Annual phlox
Portulaca — Portulaca, moss rose
Rudbeckia — Coneflower
Salvia — Salvia, sage
Senecio — Dusty miller
Tagetes — Marigold
Tithonia — Mexican sunflower
Tropaeolum — Nasturtium
Viola — Violet, Viola, Pansy
Zinnia — Zinnia


Perennials
Achillea — Yarrow
Ajuga — Bugleweed
Alchemilla — Lady's mantle
Anaphalis — Pearly everlasting
Aquilegia — Columbine
Arabis — Rock cress
Artemisia — Wormwood
Aruncus — Goatsbeard
Astilbe — Astilbe, False spirea
Aurinia — Basket-of-gold
Boltonia — Boltonia
Campanula — Bellflower
Cerastium — Snow-in-summer
Coreopsis — Tickseed
Delphinium — Delphinium, Larkspur
Dianthus — Pink
Dicentra — Bleeding heart
Dictamnus — Gas plant
Echinacea — Purple coneflower
Erigeron — Fleabane
Gaillardia — Blanket flower
Geranium — Cranesbill
Gypsophila — Baby's breath
Heliopsis — False sunflower, oxeye
Hemerocallis — Daylily
Heuchera — Alumroot
Hosta — Plantain lily
Iris — Iris
Lamium — Dead nettle
Liatris — Blazing star, gay-feather
Ligularia — Bigleaf goldenray
Linum — Flax
Lobelia — Cardinal flower
Lychnis — Arkwright campion, rose campion
Monarda — Bee balm
Myosotis — Forget-me-not
Oenothera — Sundrops, Primrose
Paeonia — Peony
Papaver — Poppy
Perovskia — Azure sage, Russian sage
Phlox — Prairie phlox
Physotegia — Obedience, False dragonhead
Ratibida — Prairie coneflower
Rudbeckia — Coneflower, black-eyed Susan
Salvia — Sage
Scabiosa — Pincushion flower
Sedum — Stonecrop
Solidago — Goldenrod
Thymus — Thyme
Veronica — Speedwell
Viola — Violet
Yucca — Adam's needle



USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map


H322, January 1999

Find this and other topics at North Dakota State University, Extension Serv. Index.